Monday, January 20, 2020

Judgment in the House of Sand and Fog by Andre Dubus Essay example --

People place judgment on one another every day based on differences. Sometimes it is done subconsciously; sometimes it is done on purpose. In the book The House of Sand and Fog, by Andre Dubus III, two different cultures were represented; Kathy represented the culture of the western civilization, whereas Behrani represented the culture of Persians. People judge one another based on unimportant things, and get judged based on those same things as well. Two cultures were used to amplify how different their cultures were from one another. Throughout the book cultures vocalized what they did not like about the other cultures by placing judgment on people based on ethnicity, appearance, and status; despite how different the cultures were, they had something in common, negative judgment. In a world where there is so much diversity, the only way for all cultures to get along is to place judgments aside and accept the differences. The book is introduced with Behrani placing judgment on the people he works with. He is judging the other people based on their race, and their status. Behrani refers to the men he works with as if they don't deserve to even be in his presence. "He is goh, the shit of life. They are all goh," (pg 16). Even though many of the men he works with do not deserve to be regarded so low, Behrani judges them as he would if he still maintained the position he had in Iran as a colonel. Behrani and his family also judge Kathy for being American. When Behrani explains to his son the situation their family is now a part of he explains it in a way that is judging of Americans. He says, "Remember what I have told you of so many Americans: they are not disciplined and have not the courage to take responsibility ... ...g, like it was in the book The House of Sand and Fog. Much of the outcome of the book was based on the fact that judgments were made, had judgment not been made about status, Kathy may not have cared so much about getting that house back, had Behrani not been judged based on status, he may have not bought that home. Cultures judge one another every day, and people within those cultures judge each other as well. This constant judging of others and of ones self is what causes people to be unhappy in the first place. The only way to live happily within ones culture, and in the world of many cultures, is to accept that each culture and person is different, which is what makes each culture and person so special; the only way to live happily in ones life, is to accept and embrace differences. Works Cited: Dubus, Andre. House of Sand and Fog. New York: Norton, 1999

Sunday, January 12, 2020

Historical Criticism of Anton Chekhov’s “The Lady with the Dog”

Russian short story writer and playwright Anton Chekhov's The Lady with the Dog (1899) is a brilliant exposition of how society's laws and institutions hinder an individual's quest for freedom and happiness (RadEssays, n. pag.). According to the poet and critic Dana Gioia, the style in which the short story was written was consistent with the emerging trends in nineteenth-century short story writing (Gioia, n. pag.).On one hand, it was based on the â€Å"anti-Romantic realism of Maupassant with its sharp observation of external social detail and human behavior conveyed within a tightly drawn plot† (Gioia, n. pag.). On the other, it also mirrored the â€Å"modern psychological realism of early Joyce in which the action is mostly internal and expressed in an associative narrative built on epiphanic moments† (Gioia, n. pag.). Hence, Gioia considered The Lady with the Dog, along with his later works, as a turning point in European literature (Gioia, n. pag.).The short story 's main character, Dmitri Dmitrich Gurov, was a man whose life was trapped early by society and the institution of marriage (RadEssays, n. pag.). During the 1900s, Russian society, just like all other societies, believed that marriage is a sacred institution (BookStove, n. n. pag.). To go against this norm (by committing adultery) meant facing social condemnation and ostracism (BookStove, n. pag.). However, Russia's upper classes only paid lip service to this rule – marriage for them was more of a convennient way to establish and secure fortunes and bloodlines (BookStove, n. pag.). Therefore, while they paraded themselves in public as respectable and happily-married people, they secretly engaged in extramarital affairs to temporarily escape the harsh reality of being trapped in a loveless marriage.Gurov was no exception. Although his real interest lay in the arts (he graduated with a degree in this field), he was forced to take up a â€Å"dignified† job in a bank (Chek hov, n. pag.). To make matters worse, his parents had set an arranged marriage for him with a woman he described as â€Å"unintelligent, narrow (and) inelegant† (Chekhov, n. pag.) – simply put, a woman he did not love. As a result, Gurov was miserable, â€Å"bored and and not himself†¦cold and uncommunicative (in the society of men)† (Chekhov, n. pag.).But feminist critcs argued that the real reason for the scorn he felt towards his wife was that she was an â€Å"outspoken woman who considers herself an intellectual† (Answers, n. pag.) – Gurov was intimadated with assertive women and preferred a woman whom he could control (Answers, n. pag.).Just like many other Russian upper-class men of his time, Gurov found solace in extramarital affairs (BookStove, n. pag.). For him, these liasons were more than just outlets for lust – they were manifestations of his protest against the society which condemned him to a â€Å"pitiable† existen ce (BookStove, n. pag.). Although Gurov openly labelled women as â€Å"the lower race† (Chekhov, n. pag.), he â€Å"could not get on for two days together† without them (Chekhov, n. pag.). His treatment of and philosophy towards women reflected the hypocrisy of Russian society with regard to the issues of love, marriage and infidelity (BookStove, n. pag.).Gurov came across an ally in his latest mistress, Anna Sergeyevna. Just like him, Sergeyevna was also a prisoner of her marriage – she got married young (20 years old), but soon regretted having done so (ECheat, n. pag.). She no longer loved her husband, regarding him as a â€Å"flunkey† (ECheat, n. pag.). In sharp contrast to Gurov’s wife, Sergeyevna was â€Å"soft and childlike, weepy and vulnerable, even a bit ‘pathetic’† (Answers, n. pag.) – the ideal Russian woman of the 1900s (Answers, n. pag.). Eager to live a single and uncommitted life once again, she feigned il lness and went to Yalta, a well-known health resort in Russia (Answers, n. pag.).Free from the unhappy situation of their respective families, Gurov and Sergeyevna carried out an illicit affair in Yalta (Answers, n. pag.). Although Sergeyevna initially felt guilty after Gurov kissed her for the first time, she was already in love with him by the time she returned to S (ECheat, n. pag.). Chekhov used symbolisms to decribe the intensity of their passion for one another. The moon, a timeless symbol of fertility, symbolized the birth of Gurov and Sergeyevna's affair (Openpapers, n. pag.). Sergeyevna's pet Pomeranian, meanwhile, represented the dependency, loyalty and amusement that they were looking for in their respective spouses, but found in one another (Paperstarter, n. pag.).When Gurov and Sergeyevna resumed their normal lives, it was then that they realized how much they missed and loved each other (ECheat, n. pag.). After meeting again in a theater, they decided to continue their clandestine affair. They secretly met in Moscow (Gurov’s hometown) â€Å"once in two or three months† (Chekhov, n. pag.).But Gurov and Sergeyevna eventually got tired of hiding like theives just to maintain their relationship. When they had their usual rendezvous at Sergeyevna’s room at the Slaviansky Bazaar hotel, they discussed â€Å"how to avoid the necessity for secrecy, for deception, for living in different towns and not seeing each other for long at a time† (Chekhov, n. pag.). But they were unable to come up with a clear solution (ECheat, n. pag.).Indeed, Gurov and Sergeyevna’s illicit liaison was a no-win situation. True, they had found real love in each other. But in a society that abhors relationships such as theirs, they were left with three options: run away, tell their respective spouses the truth or end the affair then and there (ECheat, n. pag.). Divorce was out of the question – in 1900s Russia, it was a social taboo, along with adultery (Answers, n. pag.). Divorced people were met with the same social denunciation and isolation bestowed on adulterers and adultresses (Answers, n. pag.). The open-ended conclusion added more credibility to the short story’s theme – the choice between being true to one’s self or adhering to what society believes to be correct.Chekhov’s other writings also echoed the animosity between an individual and society. In the short story Betrothed (1903), the protagonist, Nadya, was engaged to Andrey Andreyich, a man whom she didn’t love (Chekhov, n. pag.). She had no other choice – Russian women during the 1900s were not allowed to study or to work outside the home. Hence, marriage appeared to be Nadya’s only ticket to economic advancement (Eshbaugh, 3).But her perspective changed when Aleksander Timofeyich (fondly called â€Å"Sasha†) arrived from Moscow to visit her family. Upon learning of Nadya’s engagement to And reyich, Sasha warned her about the lifeless existence that is the result of an arranged marriage (Eshbaugh, 3).â€Å"Only enlightened and holy people are interesting, it's only they who are wanted. The more of such people there are, the sooner the Kingdom of God will come on earth†¦ Dear Nadya, darling girl, go away! Show them all that you are sick of this stagnant, grey, sinful life. Prove it to yourself at least (Chekhov, n. pag.)!†Despite Nadya’s initial misgivings, she heeded Sasha’s words. With his help, she fled to St. Petersburg, where she attended university (Eshbaugh, 3). Nadya eventually realized that she made the right decision in relying on herself instead of on marriage to achieve happiness (Eshbaugh, 3). Even her family ultimately supported her choice – their letters to her were â€Å"resigned and kindly, (as if) everything seemed to have been forgiven and forgotten† (Chekhov, n. pag.).Betrothed was â€Å"the last published work of Chekhov and thus his dying words to his literary audience† (Eshbaugh, 3). In a way, this explains its optimistic ending. If in The Lady with the Dog, Chekhov exposed the futility of society’s norms of â€Å"marriage for monetary gains (and) living an idle life without purpose and without love† (Eshbaugh, 3), in Betrothed, he imparted that if man can create society and the status quo, he can also change them.Works CitedChekhov, Anton. â€Å"The Betrothed.† 2008. 11 March 2008 . Chekhov, Anton. â€Å"The Lady with the Dog.† 2008. Online-Literature. 11 March 2008 . Eshbaugh, Ruth. â€Å"Literary Analysis of The Lady with the Dog by Anton Chekhov.† 21 June 2007. AssociatedContent. 11 March 2008 . Gioia, Dana. â€Å"Anton Chekhov’s ‘The Lady with the Pet Dog’.† 1998. Dana Gioia Online. 11 March 2008 . â€Å"Anton Chekhov, ‘The Lady with the Dog’.† 2008. 11 March 2008 . â€Å"A Review of Lady with a Pet Dog by Anton Chekhov.† 4 July 2005. ECheat. 11 March 2008 . â€Å"The Lady with the Dog.† 11 July 2007. BookStove. 11 March 2008 . â€Å"The Lady with the Dog (Anton Chekhov).† 2007. PaperStarter. 11 March 2008 . â€Å"The Lady with the Dog by Chekhov.† 2008. Openpapers. 11 March 2008 . â€Å"The Lady with the Pet Dog (Criticism).† 2008. 11 March 2008 .

Saturday, January 4, 2020

Essay on The Philosophy of Education - 650 Words

In order for a society to function, individuals must be productive members of that society. This is accomplished through education. The philosophy of education is determined by society. As society changes so does the concept of education. Education is needed for individuals to function in society. Without the proper tools, people would be a burden instead of an asset. To become an asset, individuals need to be exposed to those elements which would enrich their lives through knowledge. Knowledge in our society is basically learned through education. The basic knowledge each person should receive from an education is the three R’s; reading writing, and arithmetic. These mediums will enable a person to survive in today’s society.†¦show more content†¦Education can bring these individual talents to the surface. Having these talents developed by the way of the educational system, a person is more likely to become a productive member of society. Without these gifts and talents of individuals, answers in the medical, environmental, and social fields could remain mute and unexplored. Education has the responsibilities to bring out the best in each individual. The needs of society are continually changi ng. Therefore, education must also continue to change in order to productive responsible members of society. Education a hundred years ago is far different from the education today. Each generation is exposed to more and more information. This information needs to be processed and delivered to individuals. Education is the vehicle to do this. Reading, Writing and arithmetic will always be the backbone to education. However, education must also look at society and determine what more is needed to do. In our society today, computer and AIMS testing are the main focal point. Over ten years ago, high school students were being exposed to the use of the computer. Today in the 21st Century, children in kindergarten are receiving the necessary information to become computer literate. Without education keeping its eyes on what is happening in society, the next generation will be left behind. Education is the eyes and ears for society. The young people in schools are receivingShow MoreRelatedPhilosophy : Philosophy Of Education1328 Words   |  6 Pages Philosophy of Education Jihyae Choe Liberty University TESL 419 â€Æ' Philosophy of Education A good educator decides the direction of teaching based on a resolute educational philosophy. A firm and resolute philosophy does not equate with a fixed perspective, instead it is a strong foundation that can stabilize the life long educational career. In order to establish a firm philosophical basis, passion toward education should accompany proper understanding. Successful educators who establishedRead MorePhilosophy And Philosophy Of Education828 Words   |  4 PagesPhilosophy of Education Teachers, especially those in the early years of school, have the extraordinary task of instilling a life-long love of learning in their students. We are there to cultivate their young minds in an arena where children feel safe and secure while expanding and exploring their knowledge of the world around them. We are to create responsible, productive and model citizens of the world. We are given an incredible task to carry out! With that in mind, however education needsRead MorePhilosophy And Philosophy Of Education1866 Words   |  8 PagesPhilosophy of Education An educational philosophy gives teachers and all educators’ ways to use problem solving in schools. For a lot of practitioners, actual teaching has been reduced to action lacking of a rationale or justification. According to Alan Sadovick, the author of our textbook, a philosophy of education is â€Å"firmly rooted in practice, whereas philosophy, as a discipline, stands on its own with no specific end in mind† (Sadovnik, 2013, pg. 179). All teachers and prospective teachers haveRead MoreThe Philosophy Of Education And Education1175 Words   |  5 Pagesbeliefs is called a philosophy of education. â€Å"A philosophy of education represents answers to questions about the purpose of schooling, a teacher s role, and what should be taught and by what methods† (Philosophy of Education). Educational philosophies differ among all individuals in education. With individual educators, some choose a teacher-centered philosophy and others choose a student-centered philosop hy. It appears that both realms of philosophy play an important role in education inside the typicalRead MoreThe Philosophy Of Education And Education Essay1545 Words   |  7 PagesThe philosophy of education is not a topic that can be fully taught and understood by reading and studying a textbook, or a few textbooks for that matter. I believe that the philosophy of education is somewhat subjective, rather than objective, and that there exists numerous answers to what is the â€Å"philosophy of education†. I feel that one’s answers can not be expressed with a single word nor a sentence; and that one has to â€Å"experience† rather than just read to find the answer. Yes, a huge part ofRead MoreThe Philosophy Of Education And Education1201 Words   |  5 PagesThe philosophy of education seeks to study the process and discipline of education in order to understand how it works, improve its methods and perfect its purposes in today’s society. How this is done is determined by how well the learner internalizes the concepts of the discipline taught by the educator. Educators have a tremendous responsibility not only to prepare students for their lives ahead, but also to contribute to the evolution of knowledge for future generations. Each generation notRead MorePhilosophy Of Education And Education928 Words   |  4 PagesPhilosophy of Education I believe philosophy of education is defined with learning in many ways. In order to reach a certain level of learning there’s recourse along the way that defines the person and goal. John Dewey said â€Å"educational philosophy centers pragmatism and the method of learning by doing.† Purpose of Schooling A hundred years ago the definition and purpose of schooling changed tremendously. There was a point in time where education was very mediocre and a diploma was not requiredRead MorePhilosophy of Education985 Words   |  4 PagesMy Personal Philosophy of Special Education Christina L. Richardson Grand Canyon University: SPE-529N November 18, 2012 My Personal Philosophy of Special Education As educators, we need a foundation for why we want to teach, where students with different disabilities fit in that foundation, a rationale for how we teach, and a principle that keeps us striving to be the best educators we can be. The purpose of this essay is to point out what I believe the foundation, student location, rationaleRead MoreMy Philosophy On The Philosophy Of Education844 Words   |  4 PagesIn mathematics, as in life, everything must be brought to the simplest of terms. I base my teaching philosophy on the foundation that every student is capable of learning mathematics. I will strive, as a teacher, to ensure that my students are able to have a strong foundation of mathematical skills when they leave my classroom. Some students believe that they are not mathematically gifted; therefore, incapable of learning mathematics. I believe to the contrary, all students with motivation, sustainedRead MorePhilosophy : The Liberalistic Philosophy Of Education807 Words   |  4 Pages Philosophy of Education 2 Perspective: The Liberalistic Philosophy of Education The empowerment of individuals within a community appeared to be nonexistent in Greek philosopher Plato s, Allegory of the Cave. Preferentially, it was simply not within the range of one s knowledge, experience, or understanding; strange; therefore, unfamiliar. Greek philosopher Plato, an astute student of Socrates, his focal point - an advocate

Friday, December 27, 2019

Gregory Jarvis, Challenger Astronaut

Gregory Bruce Jarvis was an American astronaut who brought an extensive background as an engineer to his work with NASA. He died in the Challenger disaster on January 28, 1986, on his first and only trip to space. Fast Facts: Gregory Jarvis Born: August 24, 1944 in Detroit, MichiganDied: January 28, 1986  in Cape Canaveral, FloridaParents: A. Bruce Jarvis and Lucille Ladd (divorced)Spouse: Marcia Jarboe Jarvis, married June 1968Education: B.S. degree from the State University of New York at Buffalo and M.S. degree from Northeastern University, both in electrical engineeringMilitary Career: United States Air Force 1969-73Work: Hughes Aircraft from 1973 to 1986, selected as an astronaut candidate in 1984 Early Life Gregory Bruce Jarvis was born in Detroit, Michigan, on August 24, 1944. Growing up, he was heavily involved with a variety of sports and was also a classical guitarist. His father, Greg Jarvis, and mother, Lucille Ladd, divorced when he was in college at the State University of New York. He studied electrical engineering and received his bachelors degree in 1967. He then pursued a Masters degree in Electrical Engineering at Northeastern. After graduation, he served in the Air Force for four years, attaining the rank of captain.   Work at Hughes Aircraft In 1973, Jarvis joined Hughes Aircraft Company, where he worked as an engineer on various satellite programs. Over the next few years, he served as an engineer for the MARISAT Program, which consisted of a set of maritime communications satellites. He then went on to work on communications systems for military use before joining the Advanced Program Laboratory to work on the LEASAT systems. The technology provided synchronous communications for a variety of applications. In 1984, Jarvis, along with 600 other Hughes engineers, applied to become payload specialists for NASA flights. Work With NASA Gregory Jarvis was accepted for training by NASA in 1984. He was listed as a payload specialist, a category including people trained by commercial or research institutions to do specific space shuttle flights. His main interest was the effect of weightlessness on fluids. Jarvis was put on flight status and slated to go into space in 1985. However, his place was taken by Jake Garn, a U.S. senator who wanted to fly into space. Another senator, Bill Nelson, stepped in and also wanted to fly, so Jarvis flight was postponed until 1986.   Jarvis was assigned as a payload specialist on STS-51L aboard the Challenger shuttle. It would be the 25th shuttle mission carried out by NASA and included the first teacher in space, Christa McAuliffe. Jarvis was tasked to study fluids in space, in particular, the effects on liquid-fueled rockets, as part of a fluid dynamics experiment. His specific duties were to test the reaction of satellite propellants to shuttle maneuvers. Gregory B. Jarvis during training for his shuttle mission. NASA   For 51L, Challenger carried a tracking and data relay satellite (TDRS), as well as the Spartan Halley shuttle-pointed tool for astronomy. Jarvis and the others would be responsible for their deployment, while colleague Christa McAuliffe would teach lessons from space and attend to a set of student experiments carried into space aboard the shuttle. Although not specifically in the mission plan, astronaut Ronald McNair had brought along his saxophone and had planned to play a short concert from space. The Challenger Disaster The space shuttle Challenger was destroyed in an explosion 73 seconds after launch on January 28, 1986. In addition to Gregory Jarvis, crew members Christa McAuliffe, Ron McNair, Ellison Onizuka, Judith A. Resnik, Dick Scobee, and Michael J. Smith were killed in the disaster. After Jarvis remains were recovered, he was cremated and scattered at sea by his widow, Marcia Jarboe Jarvis.  Ã‚   Personal Life Gregory Jarvis married Marcia Jarboe in 1968 after they had met in college. They were active in sports, particularly long-distance cycling. They had no children. Marcia worked as a dental assistant.   Honors and Awards Gregory Jarvis was awarded the Congressional Space Medal of Honor posthumously. There is an engineering building at the State University of New York, Buffalo, named for him, as well as a dam in New York state.   Jarvis, along with other crew members, was the subject of a film called Beyond the Stars and a documentary called For All  Mankind, dedicated to the sacrifice made by the Challenger crew. Sources â€Å"Gregory B. Jarvis.† The Astronauts Memorial Foundation,,, J.D. â€Å"Gregory Jarvis - Challenger Memorial on Sea and Sky.† Sea and Sky - Explore the Oceans Below and the Universe Above,, Jon. â€Å"GREGORY JARVIS.† The New York Times, The New York Times, 10 Feb. 1986,

Thursday, December 19, 2019

Ford Motor Company An Dominant Car Manufacturer Essay

Ford Motor Company was founded in 1903 by Henry Ford and has continuously remained under family ownership since this time. The company developed and implemented assembly line production by the release of the Model T in 1909, and produced planes and vehicles for the allies in World War II. Ford has operated internationally since 1904, when it opened a branch in Canada to gain access to Commonwealth markets. For the first half of the 21st Century, Ford remained the dominant car manufacturer within the market it had effectively created (Corporate Ford Company, 2015). Ford, like many companies large and small of the era, was a staunch supporter of the U.S. effort at home to win World War I and World War II. During World War I, the company produced submarine chasers, tanks and cars. In World War II, it made 80 percent of all U.S. B-24 bomber planes (Corporate Ford Company, 2015). Ford became a public company in 1956 and that year won a Motor Trend award for vehicle safety improvements. In 1956, Toyota exported its first automobile to the United States, and began acquiring market share. In hindsight this was a turning point in the U.S. market, and as the 21st Century drew to a close Ford faced declining market share and had difficulty remaining competitive in the global marketplace (Corporate Ford Company, 2015). Ford is the second-largest U.S.-based automaker (preceded by General Motors) and the fifth largest in the world based on 2010 vehicle sales. At the end of 2010,Show MoreRelatedEnvironmental Challenges Facing The American Automotive Industry Essay997 Words   |  4 Pagesthe American Automotive Industry Since Henry Ford invented the mass production techniques that made cars affordable to the public, the United State s economy has been dramatically influenced by this key component in its affluence. Exponentially, jobs were created because the auto business grew. Employees were needed for the constantly growing assembly lines. Consequently, Ford s model Ts became the primary preferred, affordable, mass manufactured cars. (Davis, 2012). For more than a century, theRead MoreFord Motor Company : A Pioneer Essay799 Words   |  4 PagesIntroduction Ford Motor Company is a pioneer in the automotive industry; based in Dearborn, Michigan it assembles and distributes automobiles throughout six continents. The company’s automotive brands include Ford and Lincoln. With over 187,000 employees and 62 plants worldwide, the company additionally provides financial services through Ford Motor Credit Company. By 31 December 2014, Ford sold approximately 6.3 million vehicles worldwide, distributing from 11,980 dealerships. With no one, dominant producerRead MoreA Brief Note On The American Auto Industry910 Words   |  4 PagesAmerican Auto Industry is one of the leading car-making industries in the world. There are three major car manufacturers which are General Motors, Ford, and Chrysler. In the month of December of 2015 these three manufacturers had combined sales of close to 750,000 vehicles (Specter, Bennett, Stoll, 2016). The industry made a lot of changes after the recession of 2008 (Specter, Bennet, Stoll, 2016), but there are new challenges that they are facing. The companies face increasing competition when it comesRead MoreMarket segmentation for passenger motor vehicles1127 Words   |  5 Pages4. Market segmentation strategies 4.1 Market segments of passenger motor vehicles Passenger Motor Vehicles can be segmented in various ways according to five major segmentation variables including geographical, demographical, psychological, benefit and behaviourial. The traditional way of segment the car industry is shown below: Mini (e.g. Nissan Micra, Seat Marbella) Small (e.g. Fiat Uno, Opel Corsa, VW Polo, Rover Metro) Medium (e.g. Fiat Tipo, VW Golf, Rover 200) Large (e.g. BMW 3 seriesRead MoreElements Of General Environment : External Analysis992 Words   |  4 Pageseconomic condition of each country to promote motorization and create ever-better cars. Impacts of Economic Factors, which is the economic conditions within which organizations operate. Interest rates, inflation rates, unemployment rates, levels of disposable income and the general decline of the economy. The intense competition faced by Ford from leading companies such as Fiat, General Motors, Hyundai, and Toyota Motors, among others has long been prohibiting Ford’s capacity to increase prices of productsRead MoreThe Environmental Challenges Facing The American Auto Industry1033 Words   |  5 Pagesenvironmental challenges facing the American auto industry. At the beginning of twenty centuries until now the American auto industry has been growing and in demand. Henry Ford innovated mass-production techniques that became standard, with Ford, General Motors and Chrysler emerges as the â€Å"Big Three† auto companies by the 1920s. Manufacturers funneled their resources to the military during World War II, and afterward automobile production in Europe and Japan soared to meet demand. Once vital to the expansionRead MoreOligopoly Market Structure2723 Words   |  11 Pagesof market structures 3 1.11 Perfect competition 4 1.12 Monopoly 4 1.13 Monopolistic competition 4 1.14 Oligopoly 4 2.0 THE TOYOTA COMPANY 5 2.1 Characteristics of an Oligopoly 6 2.2 Toyota Motor Company’s Kinked Demand Curve Model 7 2.3 Recommendations on pricing strategies 9 2.31 Formation of a cartel 9 2.32 The Dominant Firm model 10 3.0 CONCLUSION 11 4.0 REFERENCES 12 5.0 APPENDIX 13 Toyota as an example of an oligopoly market structure 1.0 INTRODUCTION TheRead MoreFords Revitalization Strategy Essay9304 Words   |  38 PagesCase 4 Ford and the World Automobile Industry Robert M. Grant FORD’’S REVITALIZATION STRATEGY In September 2003, Bruce Blythe took up the new position as chief strategy officer at Ford Motor Company. His appointment came in the wake of a massive upheaval of Ford’’s strategy, leadership, and organization. In 2001, Ford’’s CEO Jacques Nasser had been ousted by the board after a three-year tenure. Nasser’’s goal had been to transform Ford into a flexible, customer-focused, innovative, global giantÂâ€"—thatRead More The U.S. Automobile Industry Essay2551 Words   |  11 Pagesthroughout the period of economic recovery that continues today. According to Chu and Su, â€Å"In this credit-driven recession, one of the hardest hit sectors was the automotive industry, along with the housing and financial markets. Chrysler and General Motors were pushed into bankruptcy; and 276,000 jobs in the automobile and parts industry were destroyed, a whopping 36 percent of the total employment in the sector†. This paper will focus on the future of the U.S. Automobile industry as the UnitedRead MoreAutomotive Industry Essay1960 Words   |  8 Pagesin our today’s world. For many people today it is inconceivably to not own a car, since they are depending on it to get to work or several other places like holidays or relatives or even to just make the local shopping trip easier. Within the Automotive industry there are several interesting things to look at. Starting with the history of the industry all the way to looking at modern industries’ leading manufacturers changing the world we live in significantly.. Furthermore there are several interesting

Wednesday, December 11, 2019

Dilwale Dulhania le Jayenge Essay Sample free essay sample

I would see DDLJ one of my favorite films as it is a dateless classic that has shaped Bollywood and Indian film. I foremost watched this film as a kid and it is one of the films that had truly stuck with me and about everyone I know throughout the old ages. Turning up Shah Rukh Khan and Kajol were household names because of how they were able to move their functions. It is a really emotional film that kept me interested throughout the full continuance. which is a really difficult undertaking to make when I’m watching a film for the fifth clip. The character of Raj played by Shah Rukh Khan goes through a passage stage that for the first clip in Bollywood which made it stand out for me as a NRI. We see the function of the typical good Indian male child switched into a butch alpha male which has antecedently ever been played with a NRI position. Overall I believe this film should ever been shown in a category like this because it captures the elegances of Bollywood film and allows you to see how it has progressed over the old ages. My Name is Khan: I truly enjoyed watching this movie. unlike many of the other movies it was my first clip seeing it. It was nice to compare how Shah Rukh Khan and Kajol have advanced themselves over the old ages. You can state by looking at them that there is a major difference in the clip that these two films where filmed. The adulthood degrees on its on shows their new degree of moving and how the success of a movie like DDLJ progressed them as histrions. The plot line is really easy to follow because of its relevance. associating to an event that has affected all of us one manner or another. I felt really connected to Rizvan and sympathized what he was traveling through. He had a happy life. was married. a step-father and love was environing him. But one unfortunate incident ( 9/11 ) changed his life everlastingly. followed by the slaying of his step-son. The many struggles’ he goes through and overcomes is really impressive and shows you how strong an person can genuinely be. There isnâ⠂¬â„¢t much unfavorable judgment that I could give to this movie. the playing and directing all came together really good. the chemical science that these people have built over the year’s shows. My biggest unfavorable judgment would hold to be with the casting of the minor functions. although the functions are minor. they basically disallow this movie to be considered a true great. Bhaji on the Beach: I thought this movie was really interesting in its subject and its willingness to acquire its message across. I liked the divide between the older traditional ladies versus the new age modern adult females. This movie had decent directing which made up for its deficiency in star power in its playing. but the mixture of two allowed for a nice tally of comedy and play. There were many cases that showed marks of upcoming tenseness and statements but I felt like it still wasn’t obvious as to what the result was traveling to be. The portion in the cafe would hold to be one of my front-runners because of how it unfolds get downing with the delivery of the traditional nutrient by the senior ladies. That is a really common thing to go on and the lady working at the desk stating them to set it off made me really happy. She called the younger adult females a prostitute for being pregnant with a black cat and says she was sword lily that she neer had kids of her ain. what else did she an ticipate other than a java thrown in her face? Lagaan:This movie is one of a sort and really interesting because of its engagement in the most popular Indian athletics. Cricket. The film covers many different facets including political relations. history. love. action and athleticss. There is something for everyone to bask about this film. which allows it to hold a broad assortment of audience. The mini-conflicts that happen in the film are setup to come together really good in the cricket lucifer. The â€Å"untouchable† job and the fact that one of the teammates was assisting the British kept you desiring to see what was approximately to go on past the consequence of the game. Although I wish they did a better occupation of portraying the cricket lucifer and non stressing that the villagers were traveling to win. it didn’t hurt my position of it that much. The love narrative was interesting every bit good. because of the white lady falling in love with the chief character we saw a love trigon which could hold turne d out really otherwise. I’m really biased because this film has been my top 3 favorite Bollywood movies of all clip. but basically it ruined my Bollywood experience because of the high outlooks it sets. demoing me how entertaining Bollywood can genuinely be. 1947 Earth:I had really assorted feelings about â€Å"1947 Earth† . I enjoyed its plot line but felt like that it was missing in the message it was seeking to portray. The state of affairss that occurred in this film were really accurate and showed a sense of pragmatism but all it did was â€Å"show† us what was go oning. The storyline wasn’t interesting at all. and at no point did I feel like we hit a flood tide. I have seen many movies that revolve around the divider of India. and this movie didn’t do anything different. It may be that I already understood what was go oning during this clip that I had no connexion to it. but person who has no anterior cognition of India during this clip might be interested in it. The lone thing that I enjoyed about this film was Amir Khan and his playing. which we could hold seen more of. One thing I would hold done otherwise is made it so the original group of friends stick together in a unsmooth clip and acquire past t he fact that they were all different faiths. Baghban:The best thing about this film was how it emphasized traditional Indian value. demoing that the parents position was the right thing to make is really rare. We see the boies who grew up in a more modern life style that promotes equality with adult females and independency and their male parent who expects them to follow his word and his base on the leader of the family. I didn’t like how the male parent and the female parent chose to divide up and unrecorded individually. they had many other options. The house was still available for them to populate in. and he still had a occupation at the bank to travel back excessively. The adoptive boy was excessively good to be true. like a guardian angel that made everything better for the male parent. The film truly wanted to demo us that traditional values are still good to travel by but I felt like there were excessively many holes in the plot line for me to truly bask it. It about felt like a retarding force to me. the conclu ding address by Amitabh being the concluding nail in the casket. with so much potency we see another floating-point operation. Bride and Prejudice:Bride and Prejudice follows a really good plot line about how two people who virtually have nil in common can fall in love and overcome differences. The movie does a really good occupation in following the book with really small differences but I feel like it was missing that last measure over-all. The playing of Aishwarya Rai stood out really good. but it seemed like she was surrounded by excessively many recreational histrions that brought the degree of the movie down to a new degree. The function of Will was really typical for me. it may be related to the directing but it seemed like he was cast to stand out from the crowd. and non on his abilities to play the function. The comedy facet of the movie is what allowed me to maintain my involvement and this truly stood out. It still fails to demo that it is anything different other than a Bollywood money grab on an audience that is willing to serve out a twosome dollars for a couple hours of amusement. I wish elect histrions like Aishwarya Rai didn’t participate in abattoirs such as this. about seting an star on her ace position in my head. Ek Ajnabee:This would hold to be my favorite genre of movies. action packed and shooting in a foreign state. This film reminds me of a batch of the Bollywood films I would watch turning up with my pa. tonss of hiting and action followed by a struggle that is merely resolved by more action and shot. Although this may non be the best work of Amitabh Bachan. it brings him back to that superhero-superhuman individuality that is still the vision many people have of him in India. I have antecedently seen Man on Fire and could see how closely the plot line follows it. This isn’t something new in Bollywood ; many films are about complete transcripts. in a lazy effort to do money. Again though. I feel like a batch of the moving wasn’t up to criterions because it took a sense of pragmatism out that Man on Fire had kept on excessively. It was missing many other facets that the secret plan was trying to implement. the construct was really clear though. I felt like re-make could hol d been better done. and even had the ability to hold other subjects implemented. to demo more of a relevancy to Bollywood film. Veer Zara:I would hold to give this movie a top 3 ranking out of all of the movies we got to watch in category. because of its ability to spread out aboard a altering India. Out of the assorted elements that this film is able to portray for us. one thing that truly stood out is how relevant this film is to the outlook in modern India sing credence of another civilization. Throughout this film it is made really clear that Veer and Zaara are of different faiths and backgrounds. yet non one time do we see this as an issue. Get downing with the households and the Sikh priest all we see is credence for other people’s positions and beliefs. regardless of the hostile yesteryear that these two states and faiths have had. I enjoyed the different attack this film took every bit in a narrative being told about the yesteryear. which allowed for a decision that drew me back into the secret plan before it perchance could hold become dull. Basically I saw the secret plan of the film as a man ner that Veer was able to demo his love for Zaara. by non opening his oral cavity and leting Zaara to maintain her honor. But in the same facet Zaara was able to make the same by wholly turning her life around and maintaining to a devotedness to a dream that Veer had told her about. Pink Mirror:The Pink Mirror was a movie that caught me off guard and required me to step outside the box from the manner I normally view movies. Up to this point I had been watching movies as a pure-entertainment facet but this movie ( missing amusement value ) had a deeper significance leting its audience to see a tabu in India. I’ve been to India multiple times and its astonishing to see that a subject like this has become a tabu. although the 3rd gender is widely seeable. Culturally it is accepted and interaction has become an mundane happening but throughout the film it truly baffled me as to how it could be banned. The film had a simple message. candidly can be seen as a manner of showing/presenting a different life style. with a struggle that allowed there to be some kind of secret plan. Although it’s about impossible to compare the movie to a higher budget movie whose pure intent is to supply amusement to its viewing audiences. this film was able to make that in its ain sense. It had many different issues arise. different tones on relationships and didn’t bent onto a individual secret plan construct for a long period of clip. It was effectual within its ability. recreational histrions and a low budget vowing to traverse the boundary that traditional Indians had implemented onto its pick of subject.

Tuesday, December 3, 2019

The Catholic Church and the Black Death in the 14th Century

Introduction Termed as Europe’s greatest ecological disaster, Black Death plague swept the continent at an amazing magnitude. Evidence shows that Black Death plague became prevalent in the West during the middle years of the 14th century[1]. Generally, when the plague struck no one knew how to prevent or treat the disease but many people resorted to bloodletting, prayers, and concoctions, which proved to be unsuccessful[2]. Estimates show that almost 50 per cent of the Europe’s population was destroyed by the disease affecting government, trade, and commerce activities, which literally came to standstill.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on The Catholic Church and the Black Death in the 14th Century specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The effects of the disease for a long time affected the European society where for about 200 years; this society lived under the scary effects and implications of the disease . Religion’s role in interpreting the causes and cures for the disease became evident during this period for instance religion became a focal point in providing assurance to the people while at the same time explaining to the people that the disease did not just happen in vacuum but had a genuine cause[3]. For example, one of the earliest written tractate by James of Agramont who was a doctor in 1348 indicated that the disease had come as a result of sins people had committed against God, citing Deuteronomy 24, the doctor noted that, â€Å"God promised prosperity to those who keep his commandments, and plague to those who do not†[4]. Therefore, the essence of this research paper is to investigate the role of Catholic Church during the Black Death, specifically paying attention to the steps the church used to prevent the disease, the Flagellants and religious movements involved and lastly the effects of the disease on the Catholic Church. Religious interpretation of the Black Death Religion interpretation of the plague was that it was a punishment that God was instituting and directing to humans as a result of pride[5]. According to Konrad von Megenburg who wrote the Regensburg, human in general had become sinful and that the plague was a culmination of God’s anger to the sinful behavior of humankind[6]. The position adopted by of other writers almost indicate similarities to these earlier positions in that they view the plague to be as a result of gross wickedness of human kind and that this wickedness had increased to annihilate God’s universal principles that held the society together. At the same time, other religious sentiments have held the notion that Black Death was inevitable in order to cure the fragmentation of the society that was being witnessed together with sin that existed in large scale[7]. Medieval Christians on their part associated Black Death with the book of Revelation and its aspects of the â€Å"Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse-pestilence, war, famine and death†[8]. The understanding of these Christians was that there was no much human effort could do to save or prevent the disease since it was a biblical prediction.Advertising Looking for essay on eastern europe? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More While other were contenting with this biblical fact, other groups of Christians were of the view that the plague largely signaled the coming of Jesus Christ to reign the earth and other groups blamed women expressing a lot of pride together with Jews who were fraudsters to be responsible for the plague in Europe[9]. Center for Medieval and Renaissance Studies note that European Christians viewed the Black Death to be God’s punishment for humankind due to immense sinful actions man was engaging in with his fellow Christians[10]. This view persisted for a long time although other opinions tried to postulate the role of other caus ative factors apart from religious ones. The basis of this argument is that there were many plain communal sins that took place in most societies of Europe; hence, for God to restore His glory on earth, humankind had to undergo severe punishment for his actions[11]. The greater role of religion in interpreting the causes of the plague remain evidenced in contemporary European art and literature, furthermore the chronicles of the 14th century have largely associated the occurrence of the plague to the afflictions to divine retribution for the wickedness of European society. For instance, Langland puts everything in summary and observes that, â€Å"these pestilences were for pure sin†[12]. Strategies used by the Catholic church to contain Black Death Upon the plague becoming dangerous, the church especially Catholic, which was the main church during the period, put in place some measures that intended to prevent or contain the plague. First, the church limited and regulated mov ements of people from one city to the other. This was done through laws that were established and required every citizen of the affected areas to abide and failure to do so attracted fine[13]. For instance, to avoid contracting contaminated substances anybody from the nearby cities and regions bordering Pistoia were not to be allowed into the region.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on The Catholic Church and the Black Death in the 14th Century specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Violation of this law resulted into a penalty of fine amounting to 50 pounds. At the same time those given the responsibility to guard the gates were given further instruction to ensure that no one is permitted from going or coming out of Pistoia especially from severely affected cities of Pisa and Lucca[14]. Anyone flouting this additional law was required to pay a fine of 10 pounds while at the same time citizens of Pistoia contemplating or planning to travel to the affected regions were required to obtain a license from the Council of the People, which was the highest organ responsible in making decisions. The second measure instituted by the church manifested itself in a kind of order and obligatory obligation that anyone had to observe. For example, the law made it clear that no any citizen of the regions within the jurisdiction of Pistoia were to bring or participate in activities aimed at importing either linen or woolen materials that could be used as clothing by the two genders or that could be used for bedclothes. Flouting of this order or any attempt to disregard this law attracted a penalty of 200 pounds.[15] In the same measure, citizens of Pistoia coming back to the country were provided with directives in that they were only allowed to carry with them linen or woolen cloths they had on their bodies and any extra clothing was to be carried in a bag or a small parcel weighing not more than 30 pounds. Those f ound to go against this order were required to remove or export the extra clothing within a maximum of three days[16]. The third preventive measure postulated that all dead bodies were to remain in their spot untouched until when such bodies have been placed into wooden caskets and covered tightly by a closure that is secured by nails. Anybody family member or close kinsmen of the deceased found or discovered to have flouted the order were required to pay a fine of up to 50 pounds. At the same time, the dead body was to remain in the casket until when it is buried, and before any burial could take place, officials from the city of Pistoia together with rectors of the parishes found in the city were to report immediately to the government officials of the city of death cases as they occurred. They were to identify the locations in which the dead person lived and did and if any contravention of the order was found to have taken place, these officials were liable for the fine on the de ad person[17]. Immediately the report reaches the government about the dead person, the podesta or captain, in whose capacity the reporting takes place, should immediately send an official to the said location where the dead person is and ensure that all contents and other law statutes are being observed in ensuring the funeral takes place within the statutes explained and any flouting of the statutes to be punished.Advertising Looking for essay on eastern europe? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More On a lighter note, the penalty prescribed in the law relaxed on those who were perceived to be poor and miserable in accordance to the declarations and statutes of the city concerning poor people[18]. The fourth law was to be implemented within precepts of ensuring bad smell from the dead bodies was not affected the general surviving population. As a law, all dead bodies were required to be buried in a ditch that was dug to a depth of 2.5 braccia and it was to be within the stated measures prescribed by the city of Pistoia[19]. At the same time, carrying dead bodies to the city of Pistoia regardless of the status, age or role of the person in society was prohibited. In addition, any person with less regards to his or her authority position was to ensure that no dead body is returned or carried back to the city of Pistoia without first being placed in a casket and upon flouting this requirement the affected individuals were required to pay a fine not less than 25 pounds. At the same time, gatekeepers from the various cities were instructed to ensure there were no such incidences of returning bodies before first being put tightly in a casket, and when any gatekeeper was found to have allowed such dead body to pass without fulfilling the requirements the affected gatekeeper was also fined[20]. The fifth law outlined and required those who had come for the burial of the deceased to avoid any conduct with the deceased body or close family members of the deceased person except and only in limited measure as to a time when procession to the church was taking place and to the burial location of the deceased. Furthermore, all people were instructed not to go back or come close to the house in which the deceased occupied before he or she died. Going against this order attracted a penalty of 10 pounds[21]. Putting more weight on this law, another additional law was constituted which required that all no any form of gift before or after burial was to be taken the deceased person place and no meals were to be served to those attending the burial except to the family members of the deceased. An abrogation of this law attracted a penalty of 25 pounds[22]. Other measures instituted by the church included a law that banned all gatherings or groupings with intentions of bringing the widow of the deceased person to outside the house unless such gathering was only taking place when returning from church or the cemetery location. However, the law provided roofer the family members in company of four women to bring the widow out. All those operating butchers were required to exercise and maintain highest level of hygiene by operating in non-smelling environment and failure to observe this attracted a fine of 10 pounds[23]. Flagellants and religious movements Black Death plague resulted into the development, rise, and spread of flagellants’ religious movements. It is believed flagellants movements started in Northern Italy before spreading to other Euro pean nations[24]. This movements attracted and appealed most to the monks who from their tradition had embraced self-mortification which top them was a way of identifying with the sufferings of Jesus Christ[25]. Many monks would whip themselves for thirty-three days, which resembled the years Jesus Christ lived and carried out his work and as atonement for the sins that had resulted into the Black Death. Early literatures on flagellant movements indicates that all classes participated and generally put on white robes and marched in barefoot in procession from one particular town to another while engaged in singing hymns and wielding iron-tipped scourges[26]. After the Black Death, the Jews became victims to the movement anger where the movement would associate the Jews to poisoning of wells[27]. Many members of the movement in instituting the punishing seen and believed to be carried out in order to avert the world from experiencing another disastrous plague would meet in market pla ces and participate in burning up the Jews[28]. Describing the movement after the Black Death, a religious historian, remarked that, â€Å"as the fervor mounted the messianic pretensions of the Flagellants became more pronounced. They began to claim that the movement must last for thirty-three years and end only with the redemption of Christendom and the arrival of the Millennium. Possessed by such chiliastic convictions they saw themselves more and more not as mortals suffering to expiate their own sins and humanity’s but as a holy army of Saints†[29]. The historian further note that the flagellant movement during this period graduated into a complex social phenomenon as its apocalyptic desires largely became manifested as motivation to personal mysticism, anticlericalism, and social revolutionary ideas that among its many issues pivoted on destruction of private wealth. Further, the movement became the bear or the symbol of European view and reaction to pandemic wher e they believed it was due to sinful acts of the Jews hence the movement took a greater part in persecuting the Jews[30]. Effects of Black Death on the Catholic Church Prior to the Black Death plague many Christians were undergoing persecution but a story detailing the tribulation of Sebastian who was a Roman soldier indicate that, after the plague many people resorted to accepting Christianity and abandoning their paganism nature[31]. When the Black Death plague struck, the Catholic Church accelerated efforts to raise money through the sell of masses for the dead and indulgences, which were believed, to pardon dead individual’s sins. Due to these activities, the church became a victim of heavy criticism where many religious leaders not in support of this move accused the church of hypocrisy[32]. In addition, the plague had a long-lasting effect on the religious thought as it resulted into despair throughout the entire family of Christianity. Many people re-visited their rela tionship with God and looked up to the church to mitigate the effects of the disease but more shocking to the Christianity family was the fact that even clerics died in great number from this disease. As a sign of lack of faith in church, the Catholic Church lost its earlier â€Å"prestige, breaking down blind allegiance to the church and setting the stage for the Protestant Reformation†[33]. As a result of the Black Death plague, the number and the quality of clergy decreased in number as more clergies succumbed to the deaths of the disease leading to the church to scramble in trying to fill the positions[34]. Lastly, the Catholic Church became largely to be associated with scandals that made its followers to severe relationship with the church. Many looked for new ways of how morality of societal values could be restored and in away to show their lack of faith and trust in the church they explored others avenues[35]. Conclusion Black Death plague has for a long time remaine d a significant period in the history of humankind. Its significance is traced to the devastating effects of the plague to the population of the humankind, the art world, and the literature materials. This is a period that Christianity foundations were shaken and severed, leading protestant reformation in later years. At the same time, this was the period when the flagellant movements translated its values and it become more involved in social issues; while at the same time, promoting persecution of the Jews. What became important feature of this plague is that the role and position of the church in society underwent tremendous transformation. People doubted the powers of the church since prayers seemed not to work and miracles to save people became scarce. Further, the responsibility of the church to take it upon itself the collection of tithes and sell of masses resulted in more discontent as more reports of corruption and misappropriation of funds became more pronounced among the followers. Attempts to rectify these anomalies failed as struggle for power and enrichment through corruption of alms and tithes heightened, the Catholic Church was unable to glue its fabrics that put it together, and reformations became inevitable which culminated in the split of the church. Bibliography Byrne, Joseph Patrick. The Black Death. CT, Greenwood Press, 2004. . Capinera, John. Encyclopedia of entomology. NY: Springer, 2008. . Center for Medieval and Renaissance Studies. Viator. Volume 5. CA: University of California Press, 1975. . Clarke, Howard. The Gospel of Matthew and its readers: a historical introduction to the first Gospel. IN: Indiana University Press, 2003. . Hatty, Suzanne and Hatty, James. The disordered body: epidemic disease and cultural transformation. NY: SUNY Press, 1999. epageqf=false . Horrox, Rosemary. The Black Death. UK: Manchester University Press, 1994. . Plague and Public Health in Renaissance Europe. Pistoia ‘Ordinances for Sanitation in a time of mortality’, 1994. .Slavicek, Louise Chipley. The Black Death. NY: Infobase Publishing. 2008. . Stewart, Cynthia. The Catholic Church: A Brief Popular History. Saint Mary’s Press. 2009. sultct=resultresnum=8ved=0CEkQ6AEwBw#v=onepageqf=false .The Decameron Web. Religious Interpretations of the Causes of the Plague. Italian Studies Department, Brown University, 2010. .Vidmar, John. The Catholic Church through ages: a history. NJ: Paulist Press, 2005. . Footnotes Joseph, P. Byrne, The black death, (CT, Greenwood Press, 2004), p.33 Joseph, P. Byrne, ibid, p.33 The Decameron Web, Religious Interpretations of the Causes of the Plague (Italian Studies Department, Brown University, 2010. The Decameron Web, ibid The Decameron Web, ibid The Decameron Web, ibid The Decameron Web, ibid The Decameron Web, i bid The Decameron Web, ibid,par.4 Center for Medieval and Renaissance Studies, Viator, Volume 5 (CA, University of California Press, 1975) p.272 Center for Medieval and Renaissance Studies, ibid Center for Medieval and Renaissance Studies, ibid, p.272 Plague and Public Health in Renaissance Europe, Pistoia ‘Ordinances for Sanitation in a time of mortality’ 1994. Plague and Public Health in Renaissance Europe, ibid Plague and Public Health in Renaissance Europe, ibid Plague and Public Health in Renaissance Europe, ibid Plague and Public Health in Renaissance Europe, ibid Plague and Public Health in Renaissance Europe, ibid Plague and Public Health in Renaissance Europe, ibid Plague and Public Health in Renaissance Europe, ibid Plague and Public Health in Renaissance Europe, ibid Plague and Public Health in Renaissance Europe, ibid Plague and Public Health in Renaissance Europe,ibid,par.6 Suzanne Hatty and James Hatty, The disordered body: epidemic disease and cultural transformation (NY, SUNY Press, 1999) p.118 Howard W. Clarke, The Gospel of Matthew and its readers: a historical introduction to the first Gospel (IN, Indiana University Press, 2003) p.229 Howard W. Clarke, ibid, p.229 Rosemary Horrox, The Black Death (UK, Manchester University Press, 1994) p.157 Howard W. Clarke, ibid Center for Medieval and Renaissance Studies, ibid, p.273 Center for Medieval and Renaissance Studies, ibid Louise C. Slavicek, The Black Death (NY, Infobase Publishing, 2008) p.98 Louise C. Slavicek, ibid, p.98 John L. Capinera, Encyclopedia of entomology (NY, Springer, 2008) p.1814 John Vidmar, The Catholic Church through ages: a history (NJ, Paulist Press, 2005) p.157 Cynthia Stewart, The Catholic Church: A Brief Popular History (Saint Mary’s Press, 2009) p.221 This essay on The Catholic Church and the Black Death in the 14th Century was written and submitted by user Adalyn Trevino to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.